Manfred Nowak is Professor for International Law and Human Rights at the University of Vienna and Co-Director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights (BIM). From 2004 to 2010, he was UN Special Rapporteur on Torture. In this function he published a critical report on the US detention camp Guantánamo, in which he accused the United States of America of violating international Human Rights standards. Manfred Nowak is head of an independent Human Rights Commission at the Austrian Ministry of Interior and, since 2010, Vice-President of the Austrian UNESCO-Commission. He has also been a member of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) since 1995.