Geneva Conventions

The four Geneva Conventions of 1949 form the basis of international humanitarian law. These laws protect persons who are not or no longer involved in hostilities. This includes civilians, prisoners of war and wounded and sick soldiers. 196 states have signed up to the Geneva Conventions to date.


Crimes during liberation wars: The Lumumba murder

Research & Academia

The criminal investigation into Lumumba’s assassination is part of a broader context of structural impunity for the crimes committed by European colonial powers during decolonization. While the long-term effects of colonization persist, direct accountability is rarely possible.


Torture in Guantánamo: Spain closes investigations into “Bush Six”


In March 2009, ECCHR partner lawyer Gonzalo Boye filed a criminal complaint against six former US officials of the Bush administration regarding their accountability for violations of international law, including war crimes and torture. The US officials became known as the “Bush Six.”