Public International Law (PIL) is a kind of legal action that is well established in the legal systems of India and Pakistan. PIL is designed to serve a broader public interest, for example in cases where those affected by a wrong cannot afford to bring legal action themselves or for who for other reasons do not have access to the legal system. PIL is unique in that these legal actions can be brought by third parties, including NGOs, on behalf of a large group of affected persons or on behalf of the general public.
In 2009, the States of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat launched a research project for the vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV). In 2010, the Government of India suspended the program as several violations of ethical standards were reported.