Since the beginning of its intervention, the Coalition has carried out dozens of disproportionate and
indiscriminate airstrikes that have injured and killed civilians and destroyed or damaged homes, hospitals,
schools, markets, and other civilian infrastructure. Several NGOs, including Mwatana for human rights,
Human Rights Watch, Amnesty international have repeatedly reported on the Coalition’s violations in
Yemen, which in many cases may amount to war crimes.
The Yemen Data Project, a non-profit organisation that collects data on the Yemen conflict in the absence of
official military records, reports an estimated 25,054 airstrikes, of which 8,121 were against military targets
and 7,055 against non-military targets1. It was unable to determine whether there was a legitimate military
target for the remaining 9,878 airstrikes2.
In its four reports, the Group of Eminent Experts (GEE) on Yemen, the only impartial international factfinding mechanism on Yemen established in 2017 by the UN Human Rights Council, has documented
violations of international law by the Coalition as well as by other parties to the conflict. In particular, the
GEE noted that Coalition’s airstrikes in violation of the principles of distinction, proportionality and
precaution may constitute war crimes3.
In April 2015, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2216 which established an arms embargo on pro-Houthi and pro-Saleh loyalist fighters. Based on this resolution, the Coalition implemented an illegal naval
and air blockade that has impeded access to humanitarian aid and basic necessities, preventing civilians from
accessing essential goods and services, such as food and clean water, which greatly aggravated the
humanitarian crisis. This critical situation is exacerbated by the Houthi authorities who are obstructing the
delivery of humanitarian aid inside Yemen. The GEE stressed that “the continuous deterioration of the
humanitarian situation in Yemen is directly attributable to the conduct of the parties to the conflict”4.
Finally, the GEE called on third states, such as France, to refrain from supplying weapons that could be used
in the conflict and thus contribute to the conflict5. The GEE emphasized that “such support may amount to
aiding and assisting internationally wrongful acts in contravention of international law”6. It further stressed
the urgency of enforcing the right of victims to obtain reparations and of holding perpetrators accountable,
including by encouraging third States to undertake universal jurisdiction prosecutions.7
1 Yemen Data Project, www.yemendataproject.org (last consulted on 14 June 2022).
3 See, UNHRC, Report of the Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen, Situation of human rights
in Yemen, including violations and abuses since September 2014, A/HRC/45/6, 28 September 2020, para. 105(a)
4 Ibid, para. 46.
5 Ibid, para. 25.
6 Ibid, para. 102.
7 Ibid, paras. 94, 99.