Who we are

To counter injustice with legal interventions – this is the aim and daily work of the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights.

ECCHR is an independent, non-profit legal and educational organization dedicated to enforcing civil and human rights worldwide. It was founded in 2007 by Wolfgang Kaleck and other international human rights lawyers to protect and enforce the rights guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other human rights declarations and national constitutions, through legal means.

Together with those affected and partners worldwide, ECCHR uses legal means to end impunity for those responsible for torture, war crimes, sexual and gender-based violence, corporate exploitation and fortressed borders.


Strasbourg shamelessly gives green light to push-backs at Europe's borders

The ECtHR’s Grand Chamber dismisses case against Spain’s “hot returns”

Strasbourg/Madrid/Berlin, February 13, 2020 – No rights at the border, too many hurdles in court. ND* and NT* were handcuffed and immediately expelled through Melilla’s fence structure from Spain to Morocco. No one asked who they were or why they were there. They were given no due process, nor the opportunity to challenge their expulsion. The same happened to at least 70 other individuals on August 13, 2014. These summary, violent and unlawful push-backs are documented in several videos, photos and testimonies. Yet, in today’s judgment, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg dismissed ND and NT v. Spain.

The judgment regards February 2015 applications against Spain by ND from Mali and NT from Cote d’Ivoire, supported by the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR). It was the first land push-back case heard by the ECtHR.

“Instead of condemning Spain for failing its human rights obligations, the court is ignoring evidence from all human rights institutions. The ECtHR is denying all rights to refugees and migrants. The decision completely ignores the reality at European borders, and particularly the situation of Sub-Saharan Africans at the Spanish-Moroccan frontier. Moreover, it will be perceived as a carte blanche for violent push-backs everywhere in Europe,” said Wolfgang Kaleck, general secretary of ECCHR. “ND and NT’s case is not isolated. Push-backs at the border to Morocco are a longstanding Spanish practice, which has become a model for other states along the European Union’s external land borders.”

In October 2017, a chamber of seven judges condemned Spain’s practice of “hot returns.” The court did not condemn Spain’s failure to provide an individualized procedure, as required under Article 4 of Protocol 4 (prohibition of collective expulsions) and Article 13 (right to an effective remedy) of the European Convention on Human Rights.

The two applicants were represented by Carsten Gericke (Hamburg) and Gonzalo Boye (Madrid), partner lawyers of ECCHR. Boye added, “The ECtHR not only accepts Spain’s concept of a lawless border zone, but created a new doctrine that could be applied to any case: whoever places themselves in an unlawful situation is not protected by the rights recognized in the convention.”

* Full names withheld for the applicants’ protection.



ND and NT v. Spain


ND and NT crossed the border fence structure in Melilla and entered Spain in August 2014. The Spanish Guardia Civil apprehended them, along with approximately 70 other individuals from sub-Saharan Africa who also had climbed the fences. They were immediately “pushed back” to Morocco – without access to any legal procedures or protection.


UN condemns Spain’s pushback policy


Spanish authorities apprehend and summarily deport unaccompanied minors to Morocco without a procedure to identify them and protect their rights. This policy was strongly condemned by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child in February 2019 in a decision that clearly upholds the fundamental rights of unaccompanied minors at Europe's borders.


Spain’s deadly border: Justice denied to victims at El Tarajal, Ceuta


At least 15 dead and many more injured: this is the outcome of a brutal pushback operation by the Spanish Guardia Civil - a paramilitary police force - at the border between Morocco and the Spanish enclave of Ceuta on the beach of El Tarajal. ECCHR assisted survivors and witnesses of the events of 6 February 2014 in taking legal proceedings against the Guardia Civil.

Press Contact

Maria Bause
T: +49 30 69819797
M: presse@ecchr.eu

Philipp Jedamzik
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M: presse@ecchr.eu