Ramzan Kadyrov officially resumed office in 2007 as head of the Russian republic Chechnya in North Caucasus. The Republic suffers from two armed conflicts against Russia, in which several thousand people were killed and numerous cities and villages were destroyed. The reconstruction processes under Kadyrov, however, his security forces and special units promote a constant threat and climate of fear among the local population. There is no opposition within the Republic and any attempts of opposition abroad are being persecuted. Several incidents of murder and abductions are reported as well as torture including acts by Kadyrov personally. The climate of fear and total impunity for regime forces reins the Republic and is spreading to neighbouring regions.