On 28 September 2015, the Higher Regional Court in Stuttgart handed down convictions in the trial of two Rwandan leaders of the Hutu militia group FDLR. Ignace Murwanashyaka, president of the Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) and Straton Musoni, his vice president, were on trial for committing grave breaches of international law in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in 2008/9. They were sentenced to 13 and eight years in prison respectively. The FDLR are alleged to have utilized sexualized violence against the Congolese civilian population as part of their battle strategy, and to have in numerous cases plundered, killed and inflicted grievous bodily injuries. In many cases women are said to have been brutally abused, injuries which in some cases were fatal. Murwanashyaka is not accused of committing these acts himself, but of failing to take action to prevent his subordinates from carrying out the acts in question (command responsibility).
For several years now, the FDLR has been carrying out attacks on the Congolese civilian population in eastern Congo. The FDLR is mainly made up of Hutu refugees who fled to eastern Congo from Rwanda in 1994 and over the years that followed. From there, the FDLR have been fighting the Rwandan Government led by Paul Kagame. Attempts by the UN and the DRC to disarm the FDLR have continually been met with reprisals against the Congolese civilian population. Huge numbers of women have been subjected to rape and other crimes. In spring 2009, the FDLR once again intensified its attacks on the civilian population in eastern Congo.